11 CSS covering Europe and its 6 main biogeographical regions have been preselected and will be implemented in the project (Figure 7, Table 2, full table of CSS presentation in Annex 2). A CSS consists of one biogeographical region in one country. Relevant actors from the local, regional, and national levels of each CSS (farmers, farmers groups, farming advisors, suppliers incl. plastic manufacturers, scientists, local and regional authorities, national policymakers, etc.) will be invited to connect with the project. At each CSS, at least 10 farmers and farms, some of which with long-term plastic practices, will be involved in the project, providing their expertise and experience through interviews and opening access to their fields for sampling and validation experiments. Collaboration with them will be coordinated by CSS leaders (WP2 and WP3, see section 3).

Description of main characteristics of CSS

 

 

 

  

Biogeo. region

Country (Partner)

Main crops

Plastic use and type

Compost/Sludge application

Vet. Drugs/ Pesticides

1

Alpine(1)

SL
(UL)

Cereals, vegetables, potatoes

Plastic mulch (LDPE and biodegrabable)

Organic fertilizers and compost

Pesticides

2

Atlantic

NL
(WU)

Cereals (corns), vegetables

Plastic mulch (LDPE)

Compost

Pesticides

3

Atlantic

UK
(UoG)

Vegetables (carrots)

Plastic mulch (LDPE and biodegradable)

Compost

-

4

Boreal

EE
(EMU)

Cereals

Plastic mulch (LDPE), tyre wear

Compost

-

5

Continental

CH
(UBERN)

Orchards, cereals

Plastic mulch (LDPE), tyre wear, silage balls

Compost

Drugs found in water & pesticides

6

Pannonian

AT
(FiBL-AT)

Vegetables, cereals and potatoes

Plastic mulch

Compost

-

7

Continental

(a) Humid subtropical

(b) Temperate sub-continental

IT

a) (UCSC)

b) (NVM)

a) Vegetables and cereals (biogas maize)

b)     Vegetables

Drip irrigation tubes, plastic mulch (PVC, biodegradable & photodegradable)

Compost (biowaste, farmyard, energy crops digestate and sewage sludge)

Pesticides

8

Mediterranean

GR
(CHQ)

Vegetables, olive trees, grapes

Greenhouse cover, mulch, tyre wire

Compost

Pesticides

9

Pannonian

AT
(AGES-AT)

Cereals, rape, vegetables

Plastic mulch (LDPE, biodegradable)

Compost

-

10

Semiarid

ES
(CAMPO)

Vegetables

Plastic mulch

-

-

11

Continental(2)

FR
(EQY)

Vines

Stakes and strings

-

Pesticides

 

 

(1)Alpine (North, West), continental (central part), sub-Pannonian (South, East); (2)with Mediterranean and Oceanic influences